Back to top

Buildings and Facilities

Plants and Grounds


  • All walls should be constructed of a smooth, non-toxic, easily cleanable surface that is impervious to water, sanitizers, etc.
  • Walls should be free of cracks and holes which may harbor pests and reduce cleaning efficiencies.
  • Walls should be free of dust, dirt, product accumulation and flaking paint.
  • Walls should be sealed at the wall/floor juncture.
  • All walls shall be sealed around the openings through   which equipment, pipes or other items pass.
  • All walls shall be free of dust, dirt and food accumulation.
  • All windows shall be in good repair with no broken panes of glass.
  • All windows shall clean, free from dust, dirt, and mold.
  • All electrical boxes mounted to walls should be in good repair, free of rust, flaking paint and should be mounted flush and caulked.
  • Electrical boxes shall be free of dust, dirt and food accumulation inside and out.
  • Boxes should be in good repair with not rust or flaking paint, and should be tightly sealed to preclude insects.


  • All ceilings shall be constructed of a smooth, non-absorbent and easily cleanable material.
  • All ceiling surfaces, as well as overhead installations or structures including ventilation units, light fixtures, electrical raceways, piping, etc., shall be clean, free of product buildup, dust, mold, webbing, rust, peeling or flaking paint.
  • There will be no evidence of or active water leaks on ceilings.
  • Insulation material used on overhead lines shall be in good repair, smooth, non-absorbent and easily cleanable.
  • Nails, staples or screws shall not be used to secure ceiling material in processing, ingredient or packaging areas.
  • No strings, ropes, wires or tapes are to be used as pipe or line supports.


  • Floors shall be well drained, smooth and clean, with no open cracks, holes or broken areas.
  • All perimeters should have an uncluttered 18-inch wide strip to assure cleanliness, allow proper inspections and comply with fire regulations.
  • Floors shall be maintained in a clean condition with no excessive accumulations or static buildup of product.
  •  Concrete floors will not be cracked or eroded, which causes absorption and unclean surfaces.
  • There should be no holes, missing concrete or low spots causing standing water.             
  • Drains will have traps, drain covers and will be maintained in clean condition, with care taken to keep water in the trap and prevent objectionable odors.
  • All cracks at the floor-wall junctures must be sealed to prevent product buildup and possible insect harborage.


  • All doors shall be tight fitting, clean and in good repair.
  • They shall be self-closing if open to the outside.                               
  • If the door is open, it shall be equipped with an effective air curtain or strip door.
  •  Doors shall be tight fitting at the bottom to preclude the entrance of insects and rodents.
  • All holes in hollow wood or metal doors must be sealed to prevent harborage inside.


  • Adequate ventilation in the processing area shall be provided to maintain proper environmental and sanitary conditions for equipment, ingredients, finished goods and packaging materials.
  • All systems shall be cleanable, function properly and be designed in a manner to prevent product contamination from condensation, mold, bacteria, insects, dust and odors.
  • Objectionable odors, fumes or vapors shall not be present.
  • All fans, fan guards, duct work, louvers and heat/air conditioning units will be clean and in good repair.
  • All ceiling mounted fans or vents will have properly functioning, self-closing louvers and will be screened to prevent insect entry.
  • All critical processing areas shall be maintained under positive air pressure to prevent dust, flying insect entry and cross contamination.
  • All filters and screens used in ventilation systems shall be routinely inspected and replaced or cleaned as necessary.
  •  All toilet and locker room facilities shall be vented mechanically to the outer air.
  • Condensation shall not be present on walls or ceilings.


  • The growth of weeds and tall grass along the building perimeter shall be arrested.
  • The surrounding premises shall be free of standing water or other drainage problems.  All storm sewers and catch basins shall be kept clear and operative.
  • The area shall be free of drippings, tunneling or any other signs of rodent activity.  Rodent traps are to be maintained in an orderly fashion.
  •  There shall be no apparent signs of pest activity immediately surrounding the building.
  • All roads, lots and yards shall be adequately paved and maintained.
  • Roads and parking lots should be graded so that water drains away from the building.
  • All scrap, pallet, equipment, etc., are to be stored off the ground and away from building walls.
  • Excessive amounts of scrap or idle equipment shall be disposed of to reduce pest activity.
  •  Any outside waste compactor/disposal area shall be clean and properly maintained.
  • Suitable covers shall be provided for outside waste containers. The surrounding area shall be free of paper, trash and litter.
  •  The areas under and around loading docks are to be kept clean and uncluttered.
  • The building roof shall be free of standing water, product dust, accumulated filth and unessential materials.
  •  There shall be no signs of pest or rodent activity on the building roof.

Waste Disposal

  • Operate systems for waste management and disposal in an adequate manner so they do not constitute a source of contamination.
  • Evaluate your system for handling, storing, and discarding food waste and other garbage to minimize the potential for contamination.
  • Clean and sanitize waste receptacles and dumpsters to minimize odor and reduce attraction of pests.

Sanitary Facilities and Controls

Water Supply

  • The water supply shall be sufficient for the operations intended and shall be derived from an adequate source.
  • Any water that contacts food or food contact surfaces shall be safe and of adequate sanitary quality.
  • Running water at a suitable temperature, and under pressure as needed, shall be provided in all areas where required for the processing of food, for the cleaning of equipment, utensils, and food packaging materials, and/or for employee sanitary facilities.
    • FDA guidelines for water temperature indicate that hot water for hand washing in toilet facilities and hand washing sinks should be at least 100⁰F/38⁰C. Hot water used as part of a sanitizing procedure should be at least 170⁰F/77⁰C.


  • Plumbing shall be of adequate size and design to carry sufficient quantities of water to required locations.
  • Plumbing shall properly convey sewage and liquid disposable waste from the plant.
  • Plumbing shall avoid being a source of contamination to food, water supplies, equipment, and utensils.
  • Adequate floor drainage shall be provided in all areas where floors are subject to flooding-type cleaning or where normal operations release or discharge water or other liquid waste on the floor.
  • Plumbing must provide that the is no backflow from, or cross connection between, piping systems that discharge waste-water or sewage and piping systems that carry water for food for food processing.
    • Backflow is the flow of water or other liquids, mixtures, or substances into a potable water system other than the intended source.
    • A cross connection exists when a direct arrangement of a piping line that allows the potable water supply to be connected to a line that contains a contaminant.

Hand Washing Facilities

  • An adequate number of hand washing stations shall be provided within the processing area. 
  • All hand washing stations will be maintained in a clean condition. 
  • Single service towels, tempered water, dispenser soap, and proper disposal will be provided at each hand washing station.
  • A sign at each hand washing station will be conspicuously posted which instructs employees to wash their hands prior to returning to work. Hand sanitizing stations will be provided where deemed necessary.

Toilet Facilities

  • Employees will be provided with a clean, sanitary and properly functioning toilet and hand washing facility.
  •  All toilets, urinals and hand washing facilities will be clean and properly functioning.
  • Hand washing stations shall have sufficient pressures of both hot and cold water.
  •  Hand washing soap, in a suitable dispenser, must be provided at each basin.
  • An adequate supply of toilet tissue and single service towels shall be provided.
  • Doors to toilet facilities shall be self-closing and will not open directly into processing, ingredient or packaging areas.
  •  There shall be no clogged drains or overflowing toilets.
  •  Legible signs shall be posted conspicuously in all toilet facilities directing employees to wash their hands before returning to work.
  • All walls, ceilings and floors shall be clean and in good repair.
  •  Waste containers shall be provided for used towels or other wastes and will have self-closing covers.
  • All toilet facilities shall be mechanically ventilated to outer air.